Metal Halide Perovskites in Quantum Dot Solar Cells: Progress and Prospects
Jianyu Yuan,1,2 Abhijit Hazarika,2,3 Qian Zhao,2 Xufeng Ling,1 Taylor Moot,2 Wanli Ma,1,* and Joseph M. Luther2,*
1Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, P.R. China.
2National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, USA.
3Polymers and Functional Materials Division, CSIR, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, India.
‘‘Go big or go home’’ could never be a truer statement, especially when it comes to energy. The world population is increasing, the energy use per person is growing more rapidly, and the total electricity use per person is growing even more quickly than that. To handle this demand, energy production must be increased, and it is critical for renewable sources to be used. Currently three quarters of a terawatt of power generated from photovoltaics (PVs) has been installed. At a somewhat optimistic average power-conversion efficiency of 18%, the distributed surface area of high purity optoelectronic grade semiconductor photovoltaic panels pointed at the sun is substantially larger than the area of the whole state of Rhode Island or nearly double the land mass of Luxembourg. While photovoltaic production continues to ramp to immense proportions, perovskite semiconductors are poised to greatly complement existing technology. On the other end of the size spectrum, the study of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) has led to advanced structures and deeper understanding within halide perovskite semiconductors. In this article, we show how the development of nanoscale metal halide perovskite semiconductors have gained prominence surpassing all other QD materials in terms of efficiency, and are becoming a platform for further improving technology to solve big energy challenges.